Edit in JSFiddle

/* All spans with a "lang" attribute are bold */
span[lang] {font-weight:bold;}
/* All spans in Vietnamese are green */
span[lang|="vi"] {color:green;}

/* All spans in Portuguese are purple */
span[lang="pt"] {color:purple;}

/* All spans in US English are blue  */
span[lang~="en-us"] {color: blue;}

/* Any span in Chinese is red, matches simplified (zh-CN) or traditional (zh-TW) */
span[lang|="zh"] {color: red;}

/* All internal links have a gold background */
a[href^="#"] {background-color:gold}

/* All links to urls ending in ".cn" are red */
a[href$=".cn"] {color: red;}

/* All links to with "example" in the url have a grey background */
a[href*="example"] {background-color: #CCCCCC;}
<p class="hello-example">
    <a href="http://example.com">English:</a>
    <span lang="en-us en-gb en-au en-nz">Hello World!</span>
<p class="hello-example">
    <a href="#vietnamese">Vietnamese:</a>
    <span lang="vi-VN">Xin chào!</span>
<p class="hello-example">
    <a href="#portuguese">Portuguese:</a>
    <span lang="pt">Olá Mundo!</span>
<p class="hello-example">
    <a href="http://example.cn">Chinese (Simplified):</a>
    <span lang="zh-CN">世界您好!</span>
<p class="hello-example">
    <a href="http://example.cn">Chinese (Traditional):</a>
    <span lang="zh-TW">世界您好!</span>